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The festive/ceremonial costume of a Kurdish townswoman from Harput. Late-Ottoman, ca. 1870. The impressive headgear (called 'hotoz') implies many scarves (some of light colours, some dark), which are braided by each other on top of a small cap. A double chain with dangles is fixed to the 'hotoz' by means of two golden head pins. Picture from ‘Les Costumes Populaires de la Turquie’- Osman Hamdi Bey, 1873. (Erfgoedbibliotheek, Antwerpen).

Ottoman Kurdish irregular soldier from Palu, wearing a silahlik (weapons belt) and holding a kalkan shield composed of concentric wicker attached by threads, the exterior made up of radial steel bars linking the steel frame to the steel domed center boss. From:Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873, 74 photographic plates by Pascal Sebah, published by the Imperial Ottoman Commission for the "Exposition Universelle" of Vienna in 1873

Tawfeq Mahmoud Hamza or Piramerd, (Pîremêrd in Kurdish), (1867–1950), was a Kurdish poet, writer, novelist and journalist. He was born in the Gwêje neighborhood of Sulaimaniya city in Iraq. In 1926, he became the editor of the Kurdish newspaper Jîyan. He is also credited for the establishment of the first private Kurdish school in Kurdistan called Partukxane i Zanistî (Scientific School)

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